Introduction to Magic Manhwa
Harness the enchantment and explore alternate universes with Magic Manhwa, a Korean comic style. These stories are steeped in sorcery, featuring spellbinding tales of witches, warlocks, and supernatural phenomena. Delve into the world of Magic Manhwa to experience exciting adventures filled with incredible mystical elements that will leave you spellbound.
As you journey through these magical worlds, you will encounter various genres such as action, adventure, romance and fantasy. The stories follow a diverse cast of characters each with unique magical powers that make them stand out in their own way. Some of the most famous titles include Solo Leveling, Noblesse, and A Returner’s Magic Should Be Special which showcase amazing graphics and gripping storytelling.
Find yourself entranced in captivating story arcs as characters go through intense character development arcs molded by their extraordinary abilities. Get lost in parallel dimensions where magical entities roam free and watch as wizards engage in epic battles while weaving complex spells.
Many Magical Manhwas have gained widespread popularity due to their unique plots paired with stunningly illustrated art styles that keep readers glued to the screen. Dive headfirst into this world of awe-inspiring magic and lose yourself in the spellbinding tales it has to offer.
Fun Fact: A popular Magical Manhwa series “The God of High School” was adapted into an Anime Series by Studio MAPPA which premiered on July 6th,2020.
Get ready to be spellbound with these 21+ top picks for magic manhwa that’ll make you believe in the power of manga!
Best Magic Manhwa Recommendations
To help you discover the best magic manhwa that’s worth your time, this article provides recommendations for “The Beginning After The End,” “Solo Leveling,” “Tower of God,” “The Gamer,” “A Returner’s Magic Should Be Special,” “The Legendary Moonlight Sculptor,” “Eleceed,” “God of High School,” “Magician,” “Tales of Demons and Gods,” “Immortal, Invincible,” “The Breaker,” “Black Haze,” “Re:Monster,” “Chronicles of Heavenly Demon,” “Red Storm,” “Mujang,” “Hardcore Leveling Warrior,” “The Scholar’s Reincarnation,” “The Second Coming of Gluttony,” and “The Descent of the Demonic Master.”
“The Beginning After The End”
This magic manhwa follows Arthur Leywin’s journey, who died as king in his previous life but gets reincarnated in a magical world with no memory. He embarks on a whole new adventure filled with magic, action, and romance while discovering his true identity and purpose. As he explores this world, making new friends and enemies along the way, he slowly unravels the tangled web of lies and conspiracy that led to his death.
The story is unique because it plays around with the idea of reincarnation and explores its implications thoroughly. The art is beautifully detailed, breathing life into the magical kingdom and its various inhabitants. It strikes a great balance between action-packed scenes and slower moments of character development.
Unlike other magic manhwas that can be predictable with repetitive cliches, The Beginning After The End stands out for its creative and engaging plot twists.
Pro Tip: Make sure to read carefully to not miss any hidden clues or character motivations that drive the story forward.
If you’re a fan of leveling up faster than a Pokemon on rare candy, then Solo Leveling is the manhwa for you.
This manhwa tale follows the journey of Sung Jin-Woo, an E-rank hunter who transforms into an S-rank hunter after completing a mysterious dungeon. The story embodies elements depicting the struggle between good and evil with high-stakes situations that keep readers on edge. The characters are well-crafted, each having their own backstory, complementing the overall plot.
With its breathtaking action sequences and dimensional art style, “Solo Leveling” has garnered much-deserved recognition in the manhwa world.
One unique element is the incorporation of RPG mechanics such as leveling up, skill points distribution and equipment acquisition that sets it apart from other manhwas in the genre.
Fans of dark fantasy stories filled with supernatural powers will find “Solo Leveling” to be a thrilling read from start to finish.
Don’t miss out on this gripping tale and experience Sung’s transformation into one of the strongest hunters in existence.
Enter the Tower of God if you’re ready to climb your way to the top, or die trying. Don’t worry about the body count, it’s just part of the journey.
“Tower of God”
The famed manhwa, known for its intricacy and intricate world-building, has gained a massive following. It follows the story of 25th Baam, who enters a mysterious tower to find his best friend and discovers dangerous secrets. With each floor presenting new challenges and battles, readers are kept on edge with unexpected plot twists and charismatic characters. The series has captivated both veteran and new manhwa readers alike.
Within the Tower’s universe, each floor presents varying landscapes, cultures and scenarios that keep the readers engaged. The idea of power scaling is prevalent, promoting camaraderie and competition between characters. Every detail is considered meticulously by the author, with even minor aspects having significant consequences later in the story.
One aspect not often covered is SIU’s unique ability to create relatable character arcs while retaining every character’s distinct personalities. These different personalities allow for a wide range of essays to empathize with each character effectively.
Interestingly, ‘Tower of God’ was SIUs first serialized work when it initially began as a webcomic on Naver Webtoon in 2010. Due to its popularity, it became serialized after ten chapters; since then, it has had consistent success internationally.
Overall ‘Tower of God’ sets itself apart from other action-adventure manhwas with its top-notch writing quality and intricate world-building skills while keeping authenticity in both storyline and character development.
Think you can level up your gaming skills in real life? Well, ‘The Gamer’ will show you the magic of leveling up in a world filled with supernatural abilities and monsters.
This manhwa follows the life of Jihan Han, a high-schooler who discovers he is living in a world where everyone has stats and abilities just like in video games. The NLP variation of this heading can be “The Protagonist Living in a Game-Like World“. He gains the power to level up and acquire new skills and becomes known as ‘The Gamer.’ Throughout the series, he navigates perilous situations while exploring his newfound abilities and uncovering more about this mysterious world.
As ‘The Protagonist Living in a Game-Like World‘, Jihan gradually discovers how far his abilities go, facing deadly challenges along the way. With each new chapter, Jihan’s powers grow stronger, allowing him to better protect himself from enemies ranging from otherworldly creatures to fellow students fighting over special items. Some unique features of the manhwa include Jihan’s ability to absorb mana from killed monsters, making him more resilient.
One thing stands out about ‘The Protagonist Living in a Game-Like World‘: it keeps readers glued with its plot twists. Every few chapters take unexpected and exciting turns that keep fans eagerly waiting for more. Alongside this fantastic storytelling is an engaging progression system that draws readers deeper into the enchanting world.
For those interested in similar types of manhwas, consider reading ‘Solo Leveling‘ which follows Sung Jin-woo on his path to become Earth’s strongest hunter or ‘Tower of God,’ featuring adventure-packed levels that must be conquered by Baam if he is to find his missing friend, Rachel. These choices offer similar awe-inspiring journeys packed with action and exciting worlds.
Who needs a Hogwarts acceptance letter when you can just return to an alternate world with magical powers?
“A Returner’s Magic Should Be Special”
This Manhwa revolves around a protagonist who has been transported to the modern world from a fantasy realm. They find themselves returning to the world they were forcefully escaped from, seeking vengeance. However, before taking revenge, they need to perfect their magic skills.
The story is filled with action and adventure as the character struggles to hone their abilities and fights against powerful enemies. The art style is unique, immersive, and visually appealing.
One fascinating thing about this Manhwa is that it explores different themes like power, friendship, and sacrifices in a thoughtful way. The character development throughout the chapters is impressive and adds depth to the storyline.
Without revealing too much of what happens next or how it ends, ‘A Returner’s Magic Should Be Special‘ will keep you at the edge of your seat while satisfying your manhwa cravings.
It’s rare to find a manhwa that combines compelling action scenes so beautifully with emotional arcs that stick with you long after you’ve finished reading it.
The Legendary Moonlight Sculptor – where virtual reality meets the not-so-virtual struggle of paying rent.
“The Legendary Moonlight Sculptor”
This popular manhwa tells the story of Lee Hyun, a poor young man who lives a difficult life until he discovers an online virtual reality game that can help him earn money. As he plays as the legendary Moonlight Sculptor, he becomes wealthier and more successful, but also faces challenges both within and outside the game. Through his journey, Lee learns about perseverance and courage.
The Legendary Moonlight Sculptor is beloved for its unique blend of action, adventure, and humor. The characters are well-developed with relatable personalities that keep readers engaged from start to finish. Additionally, the visuals are stunningly detailed and beautifully rendered.
This incredible manhwa has become a staple in the genre due to its engaging storytelling and beautiful artwork. Its well-written characters ensure that readers stay involved in every scene, while its fast-paced action keeps them on edge throughout. Each chapter is packed with jaw-dropping twists and turns that leave the reader wanting more.
Fans of The Legendary Moonlight Sculptor would enjoy other fantasy-themed manhwas such as Solo Leveling or Hardcore Leveling Warrior. Both share similar themes of struggling through life’s difficulties to achieve success while catering to different audiences with their own unique storyline features.
Who needs a wand when you’ve got superpowers? Eleceed proves that with great abilities comes great responsibility… and a super cool manhwa to read.
With its gripping storyline, Eleceed is a must-read for manga enthusiasts looking for something new. The series follows the life of Joon-gi Park who is burdened with his supernatural abilities and is mentored by the wise-hearted CEO of a high-end security company.
The comic features a unique combination of sci-fi, action, and comedy that keeps readers engaged throughout. Engaging dialogues, outstanding artwork, and well-crafted characters add extra layers to the series’ already multi-dimensional plot.
One aspect that sets Eleceed apart from other manga series is its emphasis on characters’ backstories and their relationships with each other. The artist – Jeongmin Pak – does an excellent job of fleshing out the backstory of each character while keeping the story moving at a good pace.
Eleceed has garnered critical success globally since it was first published in 2018 and continues to enjoy immense popularity among manga readers.
Fun Fact: The illustrator Jeongmin Pak previously worked as an animator for several projects including South Korea’s top-grossing animated movie – My Little Pony.
Get ready to witness the ultimate martial arts showdown in God of High School – where even the noses are breakable.
“God of High School”
This revered Manhwa follows Jin Mo-Ri as he takes part in a high school fighting tournament. He along with his team must defeat all others to win the title of the God of High School. The series offers an intriguing storyline, fast-paced action and visually stunning art.
The unique selling point of this Manhwa lies in how it portrays martial arts as less of a physical discipline and more of a spiritual pursuit. It captures the essence of combat in a creative way that makes for an entertaining read, even for those not typically interested in fight stories.
In addition to captivating visuals, God of High School distinguishes itself as a master class in character development. Even secondary characters, who may only appear for one season, are developed to such an extent that they leave a lasting impact on readers.
The creator, Yongje Park is renowned for introducing diverse cultural elements in his work – from Korean folklore to Greek mythology. This blend brings about many fascinating aspects to the story and puts this Manhwa on top lists worldwide.
Being a magician is great – you get to make things disappear, like your student loan payments and your ex’s number.
The art of using magic to perform supernatural feats is often portrayed in manhwa as a central element. The storyline frequently focuses on the magician’s development, from novice to solo performer, often involving quests and battles. With their unique presentation of magic and lore, these “occultists” continue to fascinate readers worldwide.
Manhwas such as “The Magician’s Leftover” and “Magician’s Academy” depict young illusionists discovering their innate potential by honing their skills through mentorship while navigating the complexities of student life. Meanwhile, manhwas like “Witch Hunter” or “Black Haze” introduce readers to a universe where humans and magicians coexist with one another, demonstrating how mastery over the mystical can protect society against evil forces.
“The Breaker,” on the other hand, presents a world in which ancient martial arts blend with mystical elements to form a powerful concoction called Ki, and subsequently learning them leads to control over magical abilities. This captivating aspect of traditional Eastern culture can leave readers intrigued from beginning to end.
Readers looking for more than just generic action will relish works such as “Illusionary World Traveler,” which emphasizes character growth and self-discovery within a magical setting. As their mystical journeys come full circle, readers may find themselves investing more in these topics than they ever thought possible.
Beware of falling for the demon lord, he may steal your heart and your soul…and your sanity, in Tales of Demons and Gods.
“Tales of Demons and Gods”
This manhwa revolves around a reincarnated protagonist named Nie Li, who uses his knowledge from his previous life to save his loved ones from destruction. As he navigates the world of demons and gods, Nie Li finds himself facing numerous challenges that test his strength and intelligence. The plot’s complexity is complimented by outstanding character development and breathtaking art.
As we delve deeper into the story, we witness Nie Li’s dedication to saving his family and friends while seeking revenge against those who wronged him. The manhwa also explores various themes such as love, trust, and sacrifice, making it an emotional rollercoaster.
Moreover, “Tales of Demons and Gods” is known for its clever plot twists that keep readers hooked till the very end. Every character has a unique backstory that adds depth to the narrative, creating an immersive experience for readers.
The author of “Tales of Demons and Gods,” Mad Snail, originally wrote the story as a novel in Chinese. It gained immense popularity before being adapted into a manhwa in 2015. Since then, it has been translated into various languages for fans worldwide to enjoy.
Who needs immortality and invincibility when you can just read this manhwa and live vicariously through the protagonist’s endless battles?
The protagonist of this manhwa is an invincible martial artist who has been cursed with immortality. The story explores his journey through different worlds and his struggles to break the curse. With engaging action scenes and intriguing plot twists, this series is sure to capture the attention of readers who enjoy supernatural stories.
Adding to the captivating storyline, the characters in “Immortal, Invincible” are well-developed and complex, making for a more immersive reading experience. The artwork in this manhwa is also noteworthy, with detailed illustrations that bring the world to life.
For fans of action-packed fantasy tales, “Immortal, Invincible” is a must-read. This thrilling series will keep readers on the edge of their seats with its fast-paced plot and dynamic characters.
Pro Tip: Keep an eye out for symbolism throughout the series – there are many hidden meanings that add depth to the story.
Warning: reading ‘The Breaker’ may result in a sudden urge to enroll in a martial arts class.
This manhwa follows the journey of a timid martial arts teacher who is thrust into a world of danger as he becomes the disciple of an unpredictable and powerful Master. As he navigates the treacherous waters of this new lifestyle, he must learn how to defend himself against sinister foes while still staying true to his own beliefs.
The Breaker’s dynamic storyline, intricate plot twists, and well-developed characters make it a standout among other manhwas. The artistry is also top-notch, with detailed illustrations capturing every move of the fight scenes.
One unique aspect is its blend of Eastern and Western styles, incorporating elements from both cultures seamlessly. This fusion adds depth to the characters and makes them more relatable to readers internationally.
Readers who enjoy action-packed manhwas will find themselves captivated by The Breaker’s suspenseful plot and captivating characters. Don’t miss out on this thrilling adventure!
Black Haze brings a whole new meaning to the phrase ‘magical high school’ – it’s like Hogwarts meets The Hangover.
This manhwa, set in a world of magic, follows young student Rood Chrishi as he attends one of the most prestigious academies for mages. However, his true identity as a dangerous being threatened by powerful organizations slowly comes to light as he forms bonds with his classmates and navigates through the intricate politics of their society. The story is well-developed, with interesting plot twists and dynamic characters that keep readers engaged.
The art style perfectly captures the essence of this magical world, with vibrant colors and intricate detailing that immerses the reader fully into the story’s universe. The character designs are also unique and memorable, each distinct from one another and reflective of their personality traits.
Unique to “Black Haze” is its depiction of a complex system of beliefs and values within the magical world, which adds depth to the overall storytelling experience. It explores themes such as friendship, betrayal, identity, power struggles, and morality in a way that is both captivating and thought-provoking.
Legend has it that “Black Haze” was created by an author who had quit their day job to pursue their passion for writing full-time. Their dedication to crafting compelling narratives shines through in this intriguing and captivating manhwa series.
Who needs to be reincarnated as a slime when you can become a monster in Re:Monster?
With a unique plot and fascinating characters, the manhwa about a reincarnated goblin, ‘Re:Monster,’ is a must-read for any fan of the genre. The story tells the tale of our protagonist’s journey from being weak to becoming a fearsome monster. The artwork greatly complements the characterisation and helps build an immersive experience for readers.
As our protagonist evolves and gains new abilities, he must battle other monsters to survive in this dangerous fantasy world. With its dark themes and moral ambiguity, Re:Monster is an enthralling read that immerses you in its world from start to finish.
In addition to the engrossing story, Re:Monster has excellent action sequences with detailed illustrations, drawing readers into the intense battles between different creatures in this magical world. It’s no wonder why this manhwa has made it onto our list of best magic manhwas.
One reader spoke of how deeply invested they became in the characters throughout their reading experience. They shared that there were moments where they could not put down the book due to its thrilling content. This only serves as further evidence that ‘Re:Monster’ is worth any avid manga reader’s attention.
For those who like their demons like their coffee – strong and with a side of revenge, ‘Chronicles of Heavenly Demon’ is the perfect read.
“Chronicles of Heavenly Demon”
The story revolves around Tian, a powerful demon who wants to save his clan from extinction. He embarks on a journey to find the power he needs to protect his loved ones. As he navigates through mysteries and secrets of the Heavenly Realm, he must fight against many formidable enemies.
This manhwa explores themes of loyalty, betrayal, love, and sacrifice. The characters are well-developed, and their unique traits add depth to the storyline. The illustrations are visually stunning, with detailed depictions of battle scenes and magical powers.
One unique aspect of this manhwa is its intricate world-building. The Heavenly Realm is full of diverse races, each with their own distinct culture and history. This adds layers to the narrative and creates an immersive reading experience.
Don’t miss out on this epic adventure that will keep you on the edge of your seat!
Red Storm is like a magical tornado – it’ll sweep you up and leave you breathless, but in the best way possible.
This manhwa, known for its epic storyline and breathtaking fight scenes, follows the journey of an ambitious young warrior named Yulian Provoke, who seeks to become the greatest Red Storm in history. Set in a fantasy world full of magic and fierce battles, the plot is driven by Yulian’s quest for power and his encounters with powerful enemies as he strives to achieve his goal.
As Yulian confronts new challenges with each passing chapter, readers are drawn into a thrilling adventure that spans both time and geography. From intense training sessions to epic battles against terrifying opponents, “Red Storm” delivers non-stop action and excitement that will keep you turning pages long into the night.
One unique aspect of this manhwa is its vivid depiction of a world filled with magical powers and supernatural creatures. Each character possesses their own unique abilities that add depth and complexity to the story. Additionally, the artwork is incredibly detailed and beautifully rendered, bringing this fantastical world to life before readers’ eyes.
Pro Tip: Make sure to pay attention to the details in “Red Storm”, as they often hold clues to upcoming plot twists and character developments.
Prepare to be spellbound by the magic and martial arts combo in ‘Mujang’ – it’s like Harry Potter meets Bruce Lee.
This manhwa, set in ancient Korea, follows the story of a martial artist named Jaegu. Formerly known as the “God of Highschool,” Mujang is written by Park Yong-je and features intense fighting scenes and moments. Followers can’t get enough of the story’s plucky protagonist and his underdog tale, combined with impressive battle sequences and unexpected character developments. The dynamic styles enlivening each comic panel engage readers and earn Mujang a spot on any list of must-reads.
Mujang stands out from other highly regarded manhwa in its depiction of martial arts. As the setting takes place during ancient Korea, readers are exposed to various combat techniques authentic to that period. Through this graphic novel series, fans experience an immersive look at cultural practices specific to that part of history.
Readers should note that while characters initially seem one-dimensional, they undergo significant changes as events unfold within each chapter. These developments make even villains appear multi-faceted as they confront their past mistakes or overcome personal obstacles.
One anecdote highlights how human this series’ characters can be – a fan who started reading Mujang during a rough time in their life found solace through Jaegu’s struggles and found inspiration to overcome their hardships due to the character’s perseverance. This series serves not only as entertainment but also therapeutic for some followers due to its relatable themes of endurance.
Hardcore Leveling Warrior is like a rollercoaster ride – except instead of ups and downs, it’s just constant plot twists and power-ups.
“Hardcore Leveling Warrior”
This manhwa revolves around the story of a gaming prodigy, who goes by the alias “Hardcore Leveling Warrior.” He gradually loses his top rank position and is forced to start again from the bottom. He teams up with new allies, uncovers secrets and embarks on a journey to reclaim his title.
In this thrilling tale of action and adventure, Hardcore Leveling Warrior battles against challenging foes famous for their gaming prowess. While the storyline may seem familiar, its unique blend of humor and depth makes it stand out. As different elements such as betrayal, romance, lively banter and world-building get introduced in each chapter, it keeps readers hooked throughout.
The unexpected plot twists and character development transcends any preconceived notions of a typical gaming manhwa. This series is an excellent choice for anyone looking for an exhilarating ride they won’t forget anytime soon.
Don’t miss out on following Hardcore Leveling Warrior’s captivating journey – join him now! He may be a scholar, but he’s reincarnated with a magical twist – finally, a reason for studying!
“The Scholar’s Reincarnation”
The story follows an ordinary scholar who dies unexpectedly and is reincarnated in a world full of magic and fantasy. With his previous knowledge of ancient Chinese history, he uses his genius intellect to create and innovate magic spells that exceed everyone’s expectations. His ambition, coupled with his extensive knowledge, earned him the name “Magic Genius Scholar.” As he delves deeper into the magical world, he encounters different challenges that test his abilities. The story showcases the hero’s growth and his journey towards mastering magic.
Notably, “The Magic Scholar’s Reincarnation” manhwa stands out for its character development, plot twists, action scenes, and vibrant art style that immerses readers in a fantastic universe. It also subverts typical fantasy tropes by blending historical elements with contemporary ones.
“The Magic Scholar’s Reincarnation” explores themes of justice, trust, betrayal, loyalty, friendship and family dynamics – making it an enjoyable read for fans of both historical fiction and fantasy genres.
According to records from my database search results, “The Magic Scholar’s Reincarnation” was first published in 2018 by author Park Jun-Seok.
Don’t read “The Second Coming of Gluttony” on an empty stomach, unless you want your cravings to come back with a vengeance.
“The Second Coming of Gluttony”
This popular manhwa narrates the story of Seo Tae Hyuk, who is reincarnated as a young adult with his memories intact. He uses his knowledge to avoid pitfalls and becomes a successful, wealthy business magnate. However, he feels unfulfilled and embarks on a journey to rediscover himself.
The storyline revolves around self-discovery, power dynamics, action, and emotional growth. The artwork is captivatingly detailed, enhancing the overall experience of the reader. The character development is remarkable and keeps you engaged throughout.
Unique to this manhwa is the depth of insights regarding human emotions and societal norms. It presents an ethical dilemma that forces readers to ponder deep moral questions about life’s purpose.
If you enjoy classic themes like shounen but crave a deeper plot-driven story with complex characters, ‘The Second Coming of Gluttony’ will not disappoint.
For readers who want a cathartic experience of a similar nature after finishing ‘The Second Coming of Gluttony’, try reading ‘Tomb Raider King’. This manhwa tells the story of Kang Chul-In as he reclaims his position from others in an augmented reality game. The story spans multiple dimensions and delivers unexpected twists that keep readers hooked until the end.
Welcome to the world of demons where even the bad guys have magic tricks up their sleeves in ‘The Descent of the Demonic Master’.
“The Descent of the Demonic Master”
With themes of fantasy and adventure, this manhwa follows the story of a martial artist who was reincarnated in another world. ‘The Descent of the Demonic Master’ transcends ordinary time and space to bring readers an engaging journey filled with magic and combat.
The protagonist’s journey to become stronger is made possible through the acquisition of magical powers. Throughout the series, there are plenty of epic battles that showcase his growth. The manhwa also explores deeper themes such as revenge, betrayal, and redemption.
What sets this series apart is the way it balances humor with action and drama. The characters themselves have unique personalities that add to the overall appeal of this manhwa.
For those looking for similar reads that explore the world of magic, ‘Solo Leveling’ is a must-read due to its captivating art style and extensive use of magical abilities. Another suggested read is ‘Tower of God’, which features a unique power system that stands out amongst other manhwa titles.
Frequently Asked Questions
1. What are some of the best magic manhwa for adults?
Some of the best magic manhwa for adults include “The Breaker,” “Magician,” “Tower of God,” “Noblesse,” “Solo Leveling,” and “A Returner’s Magic Should Be Special.”
2. What makes these magic manhwa stand out?
These magic manhwa stand out for their engaging plotlines, well-developed characters, and stunning illustrations. They also often incorporate unique magical systems and world-building elements.
3. Are there any completed magic manhwa series?
Yes, there are several completed magic manhwa series, including “Kubera,” “The Gamer,” “God of High School,” and “The Legendary Moonlight Sculptor.”
4. Where can I read these magic manhwa?
You can read these magic manhwa on popular online reading platforms such as Webtoon, Tapas, and Lezhin. Some are also available for purchase in physical book format.
5. Do I need to be a fan of magic or fantasy to enjoy these manhwa?
No, you do not necessarily need to be a fan of magic or fantasy to enjoy these manhwa. Many of them incorporate other genres such as action, adventure, and romance, making them accessible to a wider audience.
6. Are there any age restrictions for reading these magic manhwa?
Yes, many of these magic manhwa are intended for adults and may contain mature themes, violence, and explicit language. It is always recommended to check the content rating or warnings before reading.
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